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While the average Chinese peasant might reasonably be expected to have wild hair and wear dirty clothes, a rich foreigner doing so will arouse a degree of contempt.
Zalecamy, aby wszyscy użytkownicy zdecydowali się na wersję Flash czatu (obecnie używaną).

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GETTING STARTED WITH GRASS 23 3.1 Eirst steps 23 3.1.1 Download and install GRASS 23 3.1.2 Database and command structure 25 3.1.3 Starting GRASS with demo database Spearfish 28 3.1.4 GRASS file and location management 31 3.2 Starting GRASS with a new project 34 3.2.1 Latitude-Longitude 35 3.2.2 Universal Transverse Mercator 39 OPEN SOURCE CIS 3.2.3 State Plane 42 3.2.4 Non-georeferenced xy coordinate system 44 3.3 Coordinate system transformations 45 3.3.1 Coordinates lists 46 3.3.2 Map layers 48 3.3.3 Reprojecting with GDAL/OGR tools 49 4.

GRASS DATA MODELS AND DATA EXCHANGE 53 4.1 Raster data 53 4.1.1 GRASS raster data model 53 4.1.2 Managing raster map resolution and boundaries 55 4.1.3 Import of georeferenced raster data 57 4.1.4 Import and geocoding of scanned maps 6 1 4.

4 Insolation 378 C UMN/Map Server sample configuration 383 C.

l UMN/Map Server definition file 383 C.2 UMN/Map Server HTML template 386 Index 389 List of Figures 1 .

GIS CONCEPTS 7 2.1 General GIS principles 7 2.1.1 Geospatial data models 7 2.1.2 Organization of GIS data 11 2.1.3 GIS functionality 12 2.2 Map projections and coordinate systems 13 2.2.1 Map projection principles 14 2.2.2 Common coordinate systems 17 2.2.3 North American and European Datums 20 3.

WORKING WITH VECTOR DATA 131 6.1 Digitizing vector data 131 6.1.1 General principles for digitizing topological data 132 6.1.2 Digitizing in GRASS 133 6.2 Metadata and attributes management 139 6.2.1 Managing metadata of vector maps 140 6.2.2 Map attributes modifications 140 6.3 Viewing and analysis 141 6.3.1 Displaying vector map layers 141 6.3.2 Intersecting and clipping vector maps 142 6.3.3 Map reclassification 144 6.3.4 Eeature extraction from vector data 145 6.4 Vector data transformations to/from raster and sites 145 6.4.1 Automatic vectorization of raster data 146 6.4.2 Direct transformation of vector data to raster or sites 147 6.4.3 Interpolating raster surfaces from contour lines 147 7.

WORKING WITH SITE DATA 151 7.1 Creating site data 151 7.1.1 Digitizing site data 151 7.1.2 Generating site data within GRASS 152 7.2 Viewing and managing site data 154 7.2.1 Displaying site data and creating subsets 154 7.2.2 Computing basic statistics 156 7.3 Transformation from sites to rasters and spatial interpolation 157 7.3.1 Selecting an interpolation method 157 7.3.2 Interpolating with RST: tuning the parameters 160 7.3.3 Estimating accuracy 165 7.3.4 Interpolating large data sets (’ll) 166 7.3.5 Surfaces with faults (fl') 171 7.3.6 Adding third variable: precipitation with elevation ('0') 171 7.3.7 Volume and volume-temporal interpolation ('f|‘) 174 7.3.8 Geostatistics and splines 175 8.

Acquiring emerging propri- xxii OPEN SO URGE CIS etary technologies and digital data wasn’t even a consideration - the cost was too high and the expertise required to learn, operate and manage the technology was heyond their resources.

Given this need, a group of then young researchers at CERL elected to de- velop their own set of initial landscape analysis tools.