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They say that the paint layers contain pigments apparently bound within oils, perhaps extracted from walnuts and poppy seeds.

But Jaap Boon, a specialist in the chemical analysis of art at the Institute for Atomic and Molecular Physics in Amsterdam, the Netherlands, cautions that this conclusion must be seen as tentative until more detailed studies have been done.

So it’s questionable whether those properties would have been of much use in this setting, says Boon.

“It doesn’t make a lot of sense to use oils.” He says that it would be really difficult to keep the paint in good condition for a long time in an environment such as this, exposed to damp, fungi and bacteria.

Taniguchi’s collaborators used X-ray beams produced by the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility in Grenoble, France, to determine the composition and crystal structures of pigment particles in the colours.

The synchrotron facility produces extremely bright X-ray beams, which are essential for getting enough data from such small samples.

In the twelfth century, a German Benedictine monk called Theophilus describes how to make oil paints for interior decorating — specifically for painting doors.

Oil paints are also known from this period on Norwegian churches.

In 2008, their research revealed that paint samples from 12 of the caves contained "drying oils," most likely walnut and poppy-seed oils, which are key ingredients in oil-based paints.

But this sort of oil paint was long thought fit for only rather lowly uses.

Not until the fifteenth century did the Flemish painter Jan van Eyck and his brother Hubert refine the technique to create stunningly rich and durable colours.

Artists in Afghanistan used a primitive form of oil paint on cave walls hundreds of years before it became common practice in Europe, according to new research.

Yoko Taniguchi of the National Research Institute for Cultural Properties in Tokyo and her co-workers analysed samples of Buddhist paintings in caves at Bamiyan in Afghanistan, made in the mid-seventh and early eighth centuries AD.